References and Useful Links

Selection of references

Novostia SA has additional scientific and medical documentation to support statements made in this website. See particial listing below:  

    1. Prosthetic heart valves: Difficult to make something simple. Didier Lapeyre MD, Rolland Siegel, BA, Lawrence Scotten, DiplT, Bas de Mol, MD, PhD, and Walter Dembitsky MD.  The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Volume 139, Issue 6, Pages 1371–1373, June 2010.
    2. Prevalence, Referral Patterns, Testing, and Surgery in Aortic Valve Disease: Leaving Women and Elderly Behind? D.S.Bach et al. Journal of the Society of Heart Valve Disease, Vol 16. No 4. 4 July 2007.
    3. The Global Burden of Aortic Stenosis, Jeremy J. Thaden, Vuyisile T. Nkomo, Maurice Enriquez-Sarano. Division of Cardiovascular Disease and Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, March 01, 2014.
    4. Elderly Patients in the United States: Insights from the STS Adult Cardiac Surgery Database, 1991-2007 James Brennan et al. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MD, Circulation. August 20, 2012.
    5. Valve Disease. Timing of aortic valve surgery. Otto CM. Heart. 2000; 84:211-218.
    6. Burden of Valvular Heart Diseases: A Population-Based Study. Nkomo, VT, et al. The Lancet, 2006;368:1005-11.
    7. The Changing Burden of Valvular Heart Disease, Aneil Malhotra, Oxford Deanery, British Cardiovascular Society Editorial, June 2012.
    8. Aortic Dilatation in Patients with Bicuspid Aortic Valve. Subodh Verma, M.D., Ph.D., and Samuel C. Siu, M.D. New England Journal of Medicine, May 15, 2014.
    9. Long-term outcomes after elective isolated mechanical aortic valve replacement in young adults. Bouhout et al. The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, December 9, 2013.
    10. A shear gradient–dependent platelet aggregation mechanism drives thrombus formation. Warwick Nesbitt et al.  Nature Medicine, Vol.15, Number 6, June 2009.
    11. Intracranial traumatic and non-traumatic haemorrhagic complications of warfarin treatment. Mathiesen TI et al. Acta Neurol Scand. 1995 Mar;91(3):208-14.
    12. Mechanical versus bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement in patients younger than 65 years. Thierry-Pierre Carrel, MD, and Lars Englberger, MD. Clinic for Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital Berne, Berne, Switzerland. March 2014.
    13. Selection of Aortic Valve Prostheses: Contemporary Reappraisal of Mechanical Versus Biologic Valve Substitutes. Rakesh M. Suri, MD, DPhil; Hartzell V. Schaff, MD. Circulation. 2013; 128: 1372-138.
    14. Thromboembolic and bleeding complications in patients with mechanical heart valve prostheses. Cannegieter SC, Rosendaal FR, Briët E. Circulation. 1994 Feb;89(2):635-41.
    15. Rheumatic Heart Disease: The Tip of the Iceberg. Karen Sliwa and Peter Zilla. Circulation June 26, 2012.  

    16. Dabigatran versus Warfarin in Patients with Mechanical Heart Valves. Eikelboom JW, Connolly SJ, Brueckmann M, Granger CB, Kappetein AP, Mack MJ, et al.   N Engl J Med 2013;369:1206–14.

    17. Importance of shear in prosthetic valve closure dynamics. Lawrence N. Scotten, Rolland Siegel. The Journal of Heart Valve Disease. 2011 Nov; 20(6):664-72.

    18. Towards Non-thrombogenic Performance of Blood Recirculating Devices. D. Bluestein, K. B. Chandran, and K. B. Manning Ann Biomed Eng. 2010 March ; 38(3): 1236–1256.
    19. The German Aortic Valve Registry: 1-year results from 13 680 patients with aortic valve disease. Mohr FW, Holzhey D, Möllmann H, Beckmann A, Veit C, Figulla HR, Cremer J, Kuck KH, Lange R, Zahn R, Sack S, Schuler G, Walther T, Beyersdorf F, Böhm M, Heusch G, Funkat AK, Meinertz T, Neumann T, Papoutsis K, Schneider S, Welz A, Hamm CW; for the GARY Executive Board. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 2014 Jul 30. pii: ezu290.
    20. Systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Indraratna P, Ang SC, Gada H, Yan TD, Manganas C, Bannon P, Cao C. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014 Aug;148(2):509-14.

    21. Late outcomes for aortic valve replacement with the Carpentier-Edwards pericardial bioprosthesis: up to 17-year follow-up in 1,000 patients.McClure RS, Narayanasamy N, Wiegerinck E, Lipsitz S, Maloney A, Byrne JG, Aranki SF, Couper GS, Cohn LH. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010 May;89(5):1410-6.

    22. Minimally Invasive Video-assisted Double-valve Replacement through Right Anterolateral Minithoracotomy. Qiao Y1, An G2, Chen G1, Zheng S1, Ni L1, Wang W1, Ma L1. Heart Lung Circ. 2014 Mar 21.
    23. Open issues in transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Part 1: patient selection and treatment strategy for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Jeroen J. Bax, Victoria Delgado, Vinayak Bapat, Helmut Baumgartner, Jean P. Collet, Raimund Erbel, Christian Hamm, Arie P. Kappetein, Jonathon Leipsic, Martin B. Leon, Philip MacCarthy, Nicolo Piazza, Philippe Pibarot, William C. Roberts, Josep Rodés-Cabau, Patrick W. Serruys, Martyn Thomas, Alec Vahanian, John Webb, Jose Luis Zamorano and Stephan Windecker.  European Heart Journal.  June 2, 2014.
    24. Open issues in transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Part 2: procedural issues and outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. Jeroen J. Bax, Victoria Delgado, Vinayak Bapat, Helmut Baumgartner, Jean P. Collet, Raimund Erbel, Christian Hamm, Arie P. Kappetein, Jonathon Leipsic, Martin B. Leon, Philip MacCarthy, Nicolo Piazza, Philippe Pibarot, William C. Roberts, Josep Rodés-Cabau, Patrick W. Serruys, Martyn Thomas, Alec Vahanian, John Webb, Jose Luis Zamorano and Stephan Windecker. European Heart Journal. June 2, 2014.
    25. Long-term survival following aortic valve replacement amoung high-risk elderly patients in the United States: insights from the STS adult cardiac surgery database, 1991-2007. J. Matthew Brennan; Fred Edwards; Yue Zhao; Sean O'Brien; Pamela Douglas; eric D. Peterson. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. March 2012.

    26. Role of Computational Simulations in Heart Valve Dynamics and Design of Valvular Prostheses. Krishnan B. Chandran. Cardiovasc Eng Technol. Mar 2010; 1(1): 18–38. 

    27. High-Resolution Fluid–Structure Interaction Simulations of Flow Through a Bi-Leaflet Mechanical Heart Valve in an Anatomic Aorta. Iman Borazjani, Liang Ge, and Fotis Sotiropoulos. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. Feb 2010; 38(2): 326–344.

    28. Numerical comparison of the closing dynamics of a new trileaflet and a bileaflet mechanical aortic heart valve. Li Chi-Pei and Lu Po-Chien. J Artif Organs. 2012 Dec;15(4):364-74.

    29. Micro particle image velocimetry measurements of steady diastolic leakage flow in the hinge of a St. Jude Medical® regent mechanical heart valve. Jun BH, Saikrishnan N, Yoganathan AP. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 2014 Mar;42(3):526-40.

    30. Grow with the flow: a spatial-temporal model of platelet deposition and blood coagulation under flow. Leiderman K, Fogelson AL. Mathematical Medecine and Biology. 2011 Mar;28(1):47-84.

    31. The need for a global perspective on heart valve disease epidemiology. The SHVD working group on epidemiology of heart valve disease founding statement. Takkenberg JJ, Rajamannan NM, Rosenhek R, Kumar AS, Carapetis JR, Yacoub MH; Society for Heart Valve Disease. Journal of Heart Valve Disease. 2008 Jan;17(1):135-9.

    32. Prevalence and outcome of subclinical rheumatic heart disease in India: the RHEUMATIC (Rheumatic Heart Echo Utilisation and Monitoring Actuarial Trends in Indian Children) study. Saxena A, Ramakrishnan S, Roy A, Seth S, Krishnan A, Misra P, Kalaivani M, Bhargava B, Flather MD, Poole-Wilson PP. Heart. 2011 Dec;97(24):2018-22.

    33. Echocardiography Screening for Rheumatic Heart Disease in Ugandan Schoolchildren. Beaton A, Okello E, Lwabi P, Mondo C, McCarter R, Sable C. Circulation. 2012 Jun 26;125(25):3127-32.

    34. Thrombogenic potential of transcatheter aortic valve implantation with trivial paravalvular leakage. Lawrence N. Scotten, Rolland Siegel. Ann Transl Med Vol 2, No 5 (May 2014).
    35. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics--2014 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association. Alan S. Go, Dariush Mozaffarian, Véronique L. Roger et al. Circulation. 2014; 129: e28-e292.

    36. Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery via right minithoracotomy. Mattia Glauber, Jamshid H. Karimov, Pier Andrea Farneti, Alfredo Giuseppe Cerillo, Filippo Santarelli, Matteo Ferrarini, Paolo Del Sarto, Michele Murzi and Marco Solinas. MMCTS. 2009 (0122).

    37. In vivo evaluation of a trileaflet mechanical heart valve. Lapeyre DM, Frazier OH, Conger JL, Macris MP, Perrier P, Reul H, Rolland B, Clubb FJ Jr, Parnis SM, Fuqua JM, et al. American Society for Artificial Internal Organs. 1994 Jul-Sep;40(3):M707-13.

    38. In-vivo experience with the Triflo trileaflet mechanical heart valve. Gallegos RP, Rivard AL, Suwan PT, Black S, Bertog S, Steinseifer U, Armien A, Lahti M, Bianco RW. J Heart Valve Dis. 2006 Nov;15(6):791-9.

    39. Mitral valve disease: if the mitral valve is not reparable/failed repair, is bioprosthesis suitable for replacement? William Robert Eric Jamieson, Virginia M. Gudas, Lawrence H. Burr, Michael T. Janusz, Guy J. Fradet, Hilton Ling, Eva Germann, Samuel V. Lichtenstein. European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery 35 (2009) 104—110.
    40. Unexpected durability of a Björk-Shiley first-generation aortic valve after 40 years of implantation. Brizzio ME, Zapolanski A, Pantazopoulos J, Mentakis M.  J Heart Valve Dis. 2010 Jan;19(1):149-51.

    41. A Bjork-Shiley Valve 40 Years in Action. G. Hossein Almassi, MD.  Ann Thorac Surg. 2012 Apr; 93(4):e105. doi: 0.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.11.056.

    42. Preclinical assessment of a trileaflet mechanical valve in the mitral position in a calf model. Gregoric I, Conger JL, Reul H, Tamez D, Clubb FJ, Stainback RF, Hernandez A, Cervera R, Eya K, Byler D, Kadipasaoglu KA, Frazier OH.  Ann Thorac Surg. 2004 Jan;77(1):196-202.

    43. Thrombogenicity of mechanical aortic valves in an animal model: site specific testing is crucial. Gregoric ID, Frazier OH, Tamez D, Tuzun E, Shah NL, Clubb FJ, Chee HK, Eya K, Byler D, Conger J, Cervera R, Kadipasaoglu KA. ASAIO J. 2004 Jul-Aug;50(4):376-80.

    44. Preclinical hemodynamic assessment of a new trileaflet mechanical valve in the aortic position in a bovine model. Gregoric ID, Eya K, Tamez D, Cervera R, Byler D, Conger J, Tuzun E, Chee HK, Clubb FJ, Kadipasaoglu K, Frazier OH. J Heart Valve Dis. 2004 Mar;13(2):254-9.

    45. Aortic valve replacement in patients aged 50 to 70 years: improved outcome with mechanical versus biologic prostheses. Brown ML, Schaff HV, Lahr BD, Mullany CJ, Sundt TM, Dearani JA, McGregor CG, Orszulak TA. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2008 Apr;135(4):878-84.

    46. Aortic valve replacement: a prospective randomized evaluation of mechanical versus biological valves in patients ages 55 to 70 years. Stassano P, Di Tommaso L, Monaco M, Iorio F, Pepino P, Spampinato N, Vosa C. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009 Nov 10;54(20):1862-8.

    47. Bioprosthetic valve replacement in children--long-term follow-up of 135 isolated mitral valve implantations. Antunes MJ. European Heart Journal. 1984 Nov;5(11):913-8.

    48. Valvular disease: The private life of tissue valves. Magdi H. Yacoub & Ismail El-Hamamsy. Nature Reviews Cardiology 7, 424-426 (August 2010).

    49. Calcification of tissue heart valve substitutes: progress toward understanding and prevention. Schoen FJ, Levy RJ. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005 Mar;79(3):1072-80.

    50. Anti-Gal, alpha-Gal epitopes, and xenotransplantation. Subcell Biochem. 1999;32:229–257. Kobayashi T, Cooper DK.

    51. Glutaraldehyde-fixed bioprosthetic heart valve conduits calcify and fail from xenograft rejection. Manji RA, Zhu LF, Nijjar NK, Rayner DC, Korbutt GS, Churchill TA, Rajotte RV, Koshal A, Ross DB. Circulation. 2006 Jul 25;114(4):318-27. Epub 2006 Jul 10.

    52. Pathology of explanted cryopreserved allograft heart valves: comparison with aortic valves from orthotopic heart transplants. Mitchell RN, Jonas RA, Schoen FJ. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1998 Jan;115(1):118-27.

    53. Bioprosthetic Valves and Laudable Inflammation? Richard A. Hopkins, MD. Circulation. 2006; 114: 261-264.

    54. Characterization of the immune response to valve bioprostheses and its role in primary tissue failure. Human P, Zilla P. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001 May;71(5 Suppl):S385-8.

    55. Early treatment of aortic stenosis will prevent poor outcomes and save thousands of lives. Carrel TP, Dembitsky W, Dreyfus G, Champsaur G, Deklunder G, Flameng W, Körfer R, Lapeyre D, de Mol B, Meuris B. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2013 Jul;146(1):4-5.  

    56. Transcatheter heart valve failure: a systematic review. Mylotte D, Andalib A, Thériault-Lauzier P, Dorfmeister M, Girgis M, Alharbi W, Chetrit M, Galatas C, Mamane S, Sebag I, Buithieu J, Bilodeau L, de Varennes B, Lachapelle K, Lange R, Martucci G, Virmani R, Piazza N. Eur Heart J. 2014 Sep 28.

    57. Prosthetic Heart Valve Thrombosis. George D. Dangas, Jeffrey I. Weitz, Gennaro Giustino, Raj Makkar, Roxana Mehran. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Dec. 2016.

Useful Links

For more information about heart valves, the following websites are available: